How do Differential Association Theories best Demonstrate that Criminal Behaviour is a ‘Learned Behaviour’
1007 Words5 Pages
Differential association theory was Sutherland’s major sociological contribution to criminology, similar in importance to strain theory and social control theory. These theories all explain deviance in terms of the individual’s social relationship. Sutherland’s theory make tracks from the pathological perspective and biological perspective by features the cause of crime to the social context of individuals. “He rejected biological determinism and the extreme individualism of psychiatry, as well as economic explanation of crime. His search for alternative understanding of crime led to developmental of differential association theory. In contrast to both classical and biological theories, differential association theory pose no obvious…show more content…
That is, a person’s action are in part decided by what they perceive the consequences of their action or lack of action will be. “Whether individuals will refrain from or commit a crime at any given time (and whether they will continues or desist from doing it in the future) depends on the past, present and anticipated future rewards and punishment for their actions” (Akers and Sellers, 2004:87).
According to Akers and Sellers (2004), reinforcement of attitudes, beliefs and values occurs through both differential association and imitation can be either positive or negative. Positive reinforcement occurs when actions are rewarded through positive reactions to the behaviour as well as through positive consequences. Positive reinforcement can increase the probability of criminal behaviour through these rewards. Negative reinforcement, on the other hand involves the removal of negative outcomes or responses, and this may also increased probability of taking certain action.
The degree to which differential reinforcement occurs is related to the degree, incidence and like hood of its occurrence. That is, reinforcement is most likely to
Differential Association Theory Essay
1292 Words6 Pages
The Differential Association Theory, established by Edwin Sutherland in 1947, explicit the deviance of an individual's behavior and how it is learned through interaction with others or associations. There are several components that play a role in this theory that determines the main causes of delinquency. One of the components of this theory is, a person do not inherently become a criminal, it is a learned behavior. A person cannot decide one day he wants to commit a crime if he is not influence or challenge by others. When someone engages in criminal acts, they are most likely influence in some way that motivates them to commit the crime.
This relates to another important component and that is, when criminal behavior is learned, the…show more content…
Clifford Shaw is the author of, The Jack Roller: A delinquent boy’s own story. This is an amazing book that describes the life journey of a delinquent boy named Stanley, who encounters many obstacles and behavioral struggles in life during the time from his adolescence adulthood years. During his childhood years, where most of his delinquency began, he lived in the large Polish neighborhood which is known as the “Back of the Yards.” It was one the ugliest and poorest neighborhoods in the city. According to the author it is “surrounded by packing plants, stock yards, railroads, factories, and waste lands. The population is composed largely of families of unskilled laborers who depended on stock yards and local industries for employment” (Shaw 34). It was not a community of wealth. After Stanley’s mother died at the age of four, his life was not the same. A year later, his father remarried a woman from “hell” and she was one of the reasons why Stanley became destructive. She was selfish and only cared for her and her seven children. She physically and emotionally abused Stanley by severely beating him many times and blaming him for senseless things. She also neglected him and his two other siblings while she gave her children the best of everything with Stanley’s father money. For example, his stepmother would save food and feed her own children and let Stanley and his siblings